以「動名詞」或「不定詞」表被動語態

作者:陳雲飛&許文達&夏進

以「動名詞」或「不定詞」表被動語態

下列動詞看似主動,但其實含有被動的意義:

1.be worth+V-ing(值得…)

2.need/want/require+V-ing(需要…)

 

The book is worth reading.

=The book is worthy to be read.

=The book is worthy of being read.(這本書值得一讀。)

 

My car needs checking.

=My car needs to be checked.(我的車子需要檢查。)

用其他介系詞代替by

在被動語態中,表示行為者的介系詞,通常用by;

但有些動詞不用by而要用其他的介系詞(如to, in, at, with…)。

be

動詞的過去分詞

介詞

be

acquainted                     (認識)

covered                         (覆蓋)

satisfied                         (滿意)

with

be

amazed                          (驚訝)

astonished                     (吃驚)

surprised                        (驚訝)

shocked                         (震驚)

disappointed                  (失望)

at

be

interested                       (感興趣)

engaged                         (從事於)

in

be

accustomed

 

(習慣於)

used

devoted                         (獻身於)

known                           (為~所知)

engaged                         (與…訂婚)

to

例:

1.     The mountain is covered with snow.(山被雪所覆蓋。)

2.     I was surprised at the news.(這消息使我吃驚。)

3.     He is interested in art.(他對美術感興趣。)

 

假設句

一、與現在事實相反的假設

(一)連接詞:If

(二)條件子句

主詞 +   

1.were

2.過去式V

3.過去式助動詞 + 原形V

(三)主要子句

主詞 +    should/would/could/might + 原形V

例:

1.If he were rich, he would buy the bank.

(他若是有錢,他會買這間銀行。)

2.If I had time, I would study French.

(我若有時間,就要學法文。)

3.If I could fly, I would fly to London.

(我若能飛,我要飛去倫敦。)

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