關係代名詞

關係代名詞

1.  關係代名詞的種類

先行詞

主格

所有格

受格

who

whose

whom

人以外的動物、事、物

which

whose

of which

which

人、動物、事物

that

that

事物

what

what

2.  關係代名詞的兩種用法:

(1)  限定用法:

是用形容詞子句把其先行詞限定於某一個特殊型態。關係代名詞兼具連接詞和代名詞的作用。

My sister Cathy who lives in England will come home tomorrow.

(我住在英國的姐姐Cathy明天會回來。)

注意》不只一個姐姐。

(2)  補述用法:

用以補充說明先行詞。

My sister Cathy, who lives in England, will come home tomorrow.

(我的姐姐Cathy,她住英國,明天就會回家)

注意》只有一個姐姐。

⊙who, which可用在限定用法或補述用法中,that只用於限定用法。

3.  關係代名詞的用法要點:

關係代名詞必須和先行詞的「人稱」與「人數」一致,但和先行詞的格無關。

I know the man who is standing there.(我認識的那個人就站在那兒。)

I was spoken to by a foreigner whom I didn’t know.

(我被一個不認識的外國人議論。)

4.  關係代名詞的個別用法:

(1)  who, whose, whom

who, whom只用於人;whose用於人和非人。

關係代名詞所引導子句中的插入語。

This is the girl who I believe was the nurse of the hospital.

(我信任的那個女孩是這間醫院的護士。)

擬人化。

He has a dog who always gives me a welcome.(非擬人化時用which或that)

(2)  which, of which(whose)

用於除了人以外的動物或無生物,即「非人」。

This is the book which caused the trouble.(主格)

(這是本帶來麻煩的書。)

of which是所有格,有時也可用whose代替。

which在補述用法中還可用來代表一個片語或子句。

The decision was postponed, which was exactly what he wanted.

(延緩的決定,確實是他所期望的。)

“介系詞+which=關係副詞”

This is the place at which (=where) I was born.(這是我出生的地方。)

That is one reason for which (=why) he likes to come.

(那正是他喜歡來的原因。)

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