被動句的概述

作者:陳雲飛&許文達&夏進

被動句的概述

一、主動語態改被動語態之原則與步驟

主動句=主詞+及物動詞+受詞

被動句=主詞+be+p.p.+by+受詞

步驟如下

(一)主動句的受詞

變成被動句的主詞。(如為名代詞改為主格)

(二)將主動句的動詞改為be+p.p.。

被動句的be動詞的時式同於及物動詞的時式,be動詞的人稱、數同於被動句的人稱、數。

(三)主動句的主詞,置於by之後。(如為代名詞改為受格)

主動=      He    loves        her

       

被動=      She  is loved    by him

二、被動語態的時勢

一般動詞主動語態時式,共有十二種,被動語態的時式只有八種。

形式               主動:V                         被動:Be+p.p.

現在簡單式    He finishes it.                 It is finished.

現在進行式    He is finishing it.            It is being finished.

現在完成式    He has finished it.          It has been finished.

過去簡單式    He finished it.                 It was finished.

過去進行式    He was finishing it.         It was being finished.

過去完成式    He had finished it.          It had been finished.

未來簡單式    He will finish it.               It will be finished.

未來完成式    He will have finished it.  It will have been finished.

三、被動語態

(一)含「感官或使役動詞」的被動語態

1.句型(一)

I saw him enter the room.

=He was seen to enter the room.(我看見他走進這房間。)

(二)「S+V+O+OC」的被動語態

不完全及物動詞(如call, elect, choose, appoint…)改為被動語態時,不可以用補語作主詞,仍要用受詞作主詞。

We elected him chairman.

He was elected chairman (by us).(我們選他為主席。)

祈使句」的被動語態

1.句型:

主動=原形V+受詞

被動=Let+受詞+be+p.p. Do it at once.(立刻做它。)

Let it be done at once.

 

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